المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : Egyptian Writers

Miss\ Nemnem
08-Nov-2009, 11:16 PM

Yusuf Idris

Yusuf Idris, also Yusif Idris (Arabic: يوسف إدريس‎)(May 19, 1927 - August 1,
1991) was an Egyptian writer of plays, short stories, and novels. He wrote realistic stories about ordinary and poor people. Many of his works are in the Egyptian vernacular, and he was considered a master of the short story. Idris originally trained to be a doctor, studying at the University of Cairo. He sought to put the foundations of a modern Egyptian theatre based on popular traditions and folklore, his main success in this quest was his most famous work, a play called "Al-Farafeer" depicting two main characters: the Master and the "Farfour" [=poor layman]. For some time he was a regular writer in the famous daily newspaper Al-Ahram. It is known that he was no-minated several times to win the Nobel prize for literature.

From the English edition of The Cheapest Nights: "While a medical student his work against Farouk’s regime and the British led to his imprisonment and suspension from College. After graduation he worked at Kasr el Eini, the largest government hospital in Egypt. He supported Nasser’s rise to power but became disillusioned in 1954 at the time when his first collection of stories The Cheapest Nights was published . . Yusuf Idris’ stories are powerful and immediate reflections of the experiences of his own rebellious life. His continuing contact with the struggling poor enables him to portray characters sensitively and imaginatively."

Miss\ Nemnem
08-Nov-2009, 11:25 PM
Main Works

Short Stories

The Cheapest Nights. أرخص ليالى
Isn't it ? أليس كذلك ؟
Bottom of the city. قاع المدينة
The Hero. البطل
An incident of Honour. حادثة شرف
The End of the world. آخر الدنيا
Tha Language of Oh Oh. لغة الآى آى
The summons. النداهة
A House of Flesh. بيت من لحم
I am Sultan of the law of existence. أنا سلطان قانون الوجود
The Dregs of the City
The Freak


The Cotton King & Farahat's republic. Two Plays ملك القطن و جمهورية فرحات
The Critical Moment.اللحظة الحرجة
Al-Farafir. الفرافير
Earthly Comedy. المهزلة الأرضية
The striped Ones. المخططين
The Third Sex. الجنس الثالث
Towards an Arabic Drama نحو مسرح عربى
The Harlequin البهلوان

Novels and Novellas

Farahat's Republic & A Love story. [Two novellas] جمهورية فرحات و قصة حب
The Sin. الحرام
The Disgrace. العيب
Men and Bulls,The Black Soldier,Mrs. Vienna.[Novellas] رجال وثيران- العسكرى الأسود- السيدة فيينا
The White. البيضاء

Other writings
Not very frankly speaking. بصراحة غير مطلقة
Discovery of a continent. إكتشاف قارة
The Will. الإرادة
Diary of Dr. yusuf Idris. مفكرة الدكتور يوسف إدريس
The '60s Gabarty. جبرتى الستينات

Miss\ Nemnem
08-Nov-2009, 11:36 PM
article about Yusuf Idris in New York Times, August 3, 1991.

Yusuf Idris of Egypt, Playwright, Dies at 64
Published: Saturday, August 3, 1991

Yusuf Idris, one of Egypt's best-known playwrights, whose work often reflected his strong anti-Israeli views, died on Thursday in London of heart failure. He was 64 years old.

The Egyptian Embassy in London confirmed his death. Mr. Idris had been a patient at the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases.

Mr. Idris, who was best known for his plays and short stories, was considered by many Arab writers and critics to be the literary equal of Naguib Mahfouz, the Egyptian writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988.

When Mr. Mahfouz was awarded the prize, Mr. Idris protested he should have received it instead. He said he had been rejected by the Swedish Academy because of his anti-Israeli views.

Mr. Idris, born on May 19, 1927, began his literary career as a journalist and continued writing a newspaper column until his latest illness.

He wrote 9 plays and 11 collections of short stories, which were translated into 24 languages. His most famous short story collection is "Arkhas Layali," or "Cheapest Nights." His novels included "Al-Haram" ("The Forbidden").

He is survived by his wife, Ragaa, two sons and a daughter.

Miss\ Nemnem
10-Nov-2009, 11:36 AM
Muhammad Husayn Haykal
محمد حسين هيكل
1888 - 1956

Egyptian author, political leader, and lawyer.

Born to a landowning family in Daqahliyya, Muhammad Husayn Haykal was educated at the Cairo School of Law and at the University of Paris, where he wrote his doctoral thesis on the Egyptian public debt (1912). Homesick for his native village, he also wrote a bucolic fiction, called Zaynab (Cairo, 1914), which is usually described as the first modern Arabic novel.

Upon returning to Egypt, he practiced law, wrote for al-Jarida of Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid (with whom he remained close throughout his life), published a magazine called al-Sufur during World War I, and taught at the School of Law. Egypt had become a British protectorate in 1914, and when the nationwide revolution for independence broke out in 1919, he backed the Wafd and Saʿd Zaghlul, one of its leaders, but broke with them in 1921 over negotiations with Britain. At this time, Prime Minister Adli Yakan, Haykal, and other educated Egyptians formed the Constitutional Liberal Party (Hizb alAhrar al-Dusturiyyin), calling for parliamentary democracy. In 1922, Haykal became editor of its newspaper, al-Siyasa, and he later founded an influential weekly edition, al-Siyasa al-Usbuʿiyya. He continued his literary production with the books Fi awqat al-faragh (Cairo, 1925), Tarajim misriyya wa gharbiyya (Cairo, 1929), and a touching eulogy of his son who died in childhood, called Waladi (Cairo, 1931).

In 1934, when the Constitutional Liberals were competing for popular favor with the Wafd, the palace, and rising Muslim groups, he published Hayat Muhammad (Cairo, 1934), an attempt to apply modern scholarship to the biography of the prophet Muhammad and to reconcile the principles of personal freedom with the teachings of Islam. Increasingly pious, he made the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) in 1936, and published Fi manzal al-wahy (Cairo, 1937), relating his experience as a pilgrim. He served as Egypt's minister in seven cabinets in the late 1930s and the 1940s and as president of the Senate from 1945 to 1950. He published his last novel Hakadha khuliqat (Cairo, 1955) and also his memoirs, Mudhakkirat fi al-siyasa al-misriyya (Cairo, 1951 - 1978, 3 vols.), of which two volumes appeared in his lifetime and the third posthumously. An ambitious man with many talents, he often felt a conflict between secularism and Islam and between the democratic principles of his party and his belief that Egypt should be governed by its most educated citizens.

Miss\ Nemnem
10-Nov-2009, 11:39 AM
Life of the Muhammad Husayn Haykal

Heikal was born in Mansoura, Ad Daqahliyah in 1888. He obtained a B.A. in Law in 1909 and a JD from the Sorbonne University in 1912. After returning to Egypt, he worked as a lawyer for 10 years, then as a journalist. He was elected as editor-in-chief of Al Siyasa newspaper, the organ of "The constitutional Tory party" for which he was also an advisor. In 1937, he was appointed as Minister of State for the Interior Ministry in the Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha's second government. Then he was appointed as a Minister of Education where he introduced several reforms, including decentralization, by establishing educational zones and making programs and curricula nationally oriented. He was greatly influenced and inspired by the comprehensive reforms of Mohammad Abduh, Ahmad Lutfy El Sayed and Qasim Amin. Haikal is the father of Fayza Haikal who teaches Egyptian language courses at the American University in Cairo.

He died in 1956.


His works include:
Zeinab, 1914; the first modern Egyptian novel.
Biographies of Egyptian and Western Personalities, 1929.
The Life of Muhammad, 1933; a biography of Muhammad.
In the House of Revelation, 1939.
Al Farouq Omar,1944/45.
Memories on Egyptian politics, 1951-53.
Thus Was I Created,1955.
Faith, Knowledge and Philosophy, published in 1964.
The Islamic Empire and sacred places, published in 1964 .
Egyptian short stories, published in 1967.
Othman Ibn Affan, published in 1968.
Mehraj-ud-din beigh, arabic master.

Miss\ Nemnem
10-Nov-2009, 11:56 AM
the book of "The Life of Muhammad"
by Haykal

the life of muhammad was written by Muhammad Husyan Haykal
Haykal's Hayat Muhammad has a long and strange story. Its translation into English and publication by the University of Chicago Press

the Book
Click Here (لا يمكنك مشاهدة الروابط قبل الرد)

Miss\ Nemnem
11-Nov-2009, 10:55 PM
لا يمكنك مشاهدة الروابط قبل الرد

Naguib Mahfouz (Arabic: نجيب محفوظ‎, Nagīb Maḥfūẓ) (December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006)

He was an Egyptian novelist who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq el-Hakim, to explore themes of existentialism.[1] He published over 50 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have been made into Arabic and foreign languages films.

Early life and education

Born into a lower middle-class Muslim family in the Gamaleyya quarter of Cairo, Mahfouz was named after Professor Naguib Pasha Mahfouz (1882-1974), the renowned Coptic physician who delivered him. Mahfouz was the seventh and the youngest child in a family that had five boys and two girls. The family lived in two popular districts of the town, in el-Gamaleyya, from where they moved in 1924 to el-Abbaseyya, then a new Cairo suburb; both provided the backdrop for many of Mahfouz's writings. His father, whom Mahfouz described as having been "old-fashioned", was a civil servant, and Mahfouz eventually followed in his footsteps. In his childhood Mahfouz read extensively. His mother often took him to museums and Egyptian history later became a major theme in many of his books.[2]

The Mahfouz family were devout Muslims and Mahfouz had a strictly Islamic upbringing. In an interview, he painfully elaborated on the stern religious climate at home during his childhood years. He stated that "You would never have thought that an artist would emerge from that family".[2]

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 had a strong effect on Mahfouz, although he was at the time only seven years old. From the window he often saw British soldiers firing at the demonstrators, men and women. "You could say," he later noted, "that the one thing which most shook the security of my childhood was the 1919 revolution." After completing his secondary education, Mahfouz entered the King Fouad I University, now known as the University of Cairo, where he studied philosophy, graduating in 1934. By 1936, having spent a year working on an M.A., he decided to become a professional writer. Mahfouz then worked as a journalist at er-Risala, and contributed to el-Hilal and Al-Ahram. The major Egyptian influence on Mahfouz's thoughts of science and socialism in the 1930s was Salama Moussa, the Fabian intellectua

Miss\ Nemnem
11-Nov-2009, 11:01 PM
Civil Service

Mahfouz left academia and pursued a career in the Ministry of Religious affairs. However, he was soon moved to a role in the Ministry of Culture as the official responsible for the film industry, due to his apparent atheism.[3]

A longtime civil servant, Mahfouz served in the Ministry of Mortmain Endowments, then as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Art, Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, and finally as a consultant to the Ministry of Culture.

Mahfouz left his post as the Director of Censorship and was appointed Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema. He was a contributing editor for the leading newspaper el-Ahram and in 1969 he became a consultant to the Ministry of Culture, retiring in 1972.


Mahfouz remained a bachelor until the age of 43. The reason as to his late marriage was that Mahfouz laboured under his conviction that marriage with its numerous restrictions and limitations would hamper his literary future. In 1954, he married an Egyptian woman, with whom he had two daughters.

He published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have been made into Arabic-language films. He was a board member of Dar el-Ma'aref publishing house. Many of his novels were serialized in el-Ahram, and his writings also appeared in his weekly column, "Point of View". Before the Nobel Prize only a few of his novels had appeared in the West.

Clash with Fundamentalists

Mahfouz did not shrink from controversy outside of his work. As a consequence of his outspoken support for Sadat's Camp David peace treaty with Israel in 1978, his books were banned in many Arab countries until after he won the Nobel prize.

Like many Egyptian writers and intellectuals, Mahfouz was on an Islamic fundamentalist "death list". He defended Salman Rushdie after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini condemned Rushdie to death in 1989, but also criticized his Satanic Verses as "insulting" to Islam. Mahfouz believed in freedom of expression and although he did not personally agree with Rushdie's work, he did not believe that there should be a fatwa condemning him to death for it. He also condemned Khomeini for issuing the fatwa, for he did not believe that the Ayatollah was representing Islam.

In 1989, after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's fatwa calling for Salman Rushdie and his publishers to be killed, Mahfouz called Khomeini a terrorist.[4] Shortly after Mahfouz joined 80 other intellectuals in declaring that "no blasphemy harms Islam and Muslims so much as the call for murdering a writer."[5] The Rushdie incident also provoked fundamentalist Muslims to regret not having made an example of Mahfouz, one telling a journalist:

If only we had behaved in the proper Islamic manner with Naguib Mahfouz, we would not have been assailed by the appearance of Salman Rushdie. Had we killed Naguib Mahfouz, Salman Rushdie would not have appeared.[6]

Miss\ Nemnem
11-Nov-2009, 11:04 PM
Attempted Assassination

The appearance of The Satanic Verses brought back up the controversy surrounding Mahfouz's Children of Gebelawi. Death threats against Mahfouz followed, including one from the "blind sheikh," Egyptian theologian Omar Abdul-Rahman. Like Rushdie, Mahfouz was given police protection, but in 1994 Islamic extremists almost succeeded in assassinating the 82-year-old novelist by stabbing him in the neck outside his Cairo home. He survived, permanently affected by damage to nerves in his right hand. After the incident Mahfouz was unable to write for more than a few minutes a day and consequently produced fewer and fewer works. Subsequently, he lived under constant bodyguard protection. Finally, in the beginning of 2006, the novel was published in Egypt with a preface written by Ahmad Kamal Aboul-Magd.

Miss\ Nemnem
11-Nov-2009, 11:06 PM
Death and Funeral

Prior to his death, Mohfouz was the oldest living Nobel Literature laureate and the third oldest of all time, trailing only Bertrand Russell and Halldor Laxness. At the time of his death, he was the only Arabic-language writer to have won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

In July 2006, Mahfouz sustained an injury to his head as a result of a fall. He remained ill until his death on August 30, 2006 in a Cairo hospital.

In his old age Mahfouz became nearly blind, and though he continued to write, he had difficulties in holding a pen or a pencil. He also had to abandon his daily habit of meeting his friends at coffeehouses. Prior to his death, he suffered from a bleeding ulcer, kidney problems, and cardiac failure.

Mahfouz was accorded a state funeral with full military honors on August 31, 2006 in Cairo. His funeral took place in the el-Rashdan Mosque in Nasr City in Cairo.

Mahfouz once dreamed that all the social classes of Egypt, including the very poor, would join his funeral procession. However, attendance was tightly restricted by the Egyptian government amid protest by mourners.

Views, Writing Style and Themes

Most of Mahfouz's early works were set in el-Gamaleyya. Abath Al-Aqdar (Mockery of the Fates) (1939), Radubis (1943), and Kifah Tibah (The Struggle of Tyba) (1944), were historical novels, written as part of a larger unfulfilled project of 30 novels. Inspired by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Mahfouz planned to cover the whole history of Egypt in a series of books. However, following the third volume, Mahfouz shifted his interest to the present, the psychological impact of the social change on ordinary people.

Mahfouz's central work in the 1950s was the Cairo Trilogy, an immense monumental work of 1,500 pages, which the author completed before the July Revolution. The novels were titled with the street names Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street. Mahfouz set the story in the parts of Cairo where he grew up. They depict the life of the patriarch el-Sayyed Ahmed Abdel Gawad and his family over three generations in Cairo from World War I to the 1950s, when King Farouk I was overthrown. With its rich variety of characters and psychological understanding, the work connected Mahfouz to such authors as Balzac, Dickens, Tolstoy, and Galsworthy. Mahfouz ceased to write for some years after finishing the trilogy. Disappointed in the Nasser régime, which had overthrown the monarchy in 1952, he started publishing again in 1959, now prolifically pouring out novels, short stories, journalism, memoirs, essays, and screenplays.

Chitchat on the Nile (1966) is one of his most popular novels. It was later made into a film featuring a cast of top actors during the time of president Anwar al-Sadat. The film/story criticizes the decadence of Egyptian society during the era of Gamal Abdel Nasser. It was banned by Sadat to prevent provocation of Egyptians who still loved former president Nasser. Copies were hard to find prior to the late 1990s. Mahfouz's prose is characterised by the blunt expression of his ideas. He has written works covering a broad range of topics, including socialism, homosexuality, and God. Writing about some of the subjects was prohibited in Egypt.

The Children of Gebelawi (1959, also known as "Children of our Alley") one of Mahfouz's best known works, has been banned in Egypt for alleged blasphemy over its allegorical portrayal of God and the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It portrayed the patriarch Gebelaawi and his children, average Egyptians living the lives of Cain and Abel, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed. Gebelaawi has built a mansion in an oasis in the middle of a barren desert; his estate becomes the scene of a family feud which continues for generations. "Whenever someone is depressed, suffering or humiliated, he points to the mansion at the top of the alley at the end opening out to the desert, and says sadly, 'That is our ancestor's house, we are all his children, and we have a right to his property. Why are we starving? What have we done?'" The book was banned throughout the Arab world, except in the Lebanon. In the 1960s, Mahfouz further developed its theme that humanity is moving further away from God in his existentialist novels. In The Thief and the Dogs (1961) he depicted the fate of a Marxist thief, who has been released from prison and plans revenge.

In the 1960s and 1970s Mahfouz began to construct his novels more freely and to use interior monologues. In Miramar (1967) he developed a form of multiple first-person narration. Four narrators, among them a Socialist and a Nasserite opportunist, represent different political views. In the center of the story is an attractive servant girl. In Arabian Nights and Days (1981) and in The Journey of Ibn Fatouma (1983) Mahfouz drew on traditional Arabic narratives as subtexts. Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (1985) is about conflict between old and new religious truths, a theme with which Mika Waltari dealt in Finland in his historical novel Sinuhe (1945, trans. The Egyptian).

Many of his novels were first published in serialized form, including Children of Gebelawi and Midaq Alley which was adapted into a Mexican film starring Salma Hayek (El callejón de los milagros).

Mahfouz described the development of his country in the 20th-century. He combined intellectual and cultural influences from East and West - his own exposure to the literarature of non-Egyptian culture began in his youth with the enthusiastic consumption of Western detective stories, Russian classics, and such modernist writers as Proust, Kafka and Joyce. Mahfouz's stories, written in the florid classical Arabic, are almost always set in the heavily populated urban quarters of Cairo, where his characters, mostly ordinary people, try to cope with the modernization of society and the temptations of Western values.